Stanislaw Lem was born in 1921 in Lvov, Poland. He is the author of novels, short stories, literary criticism, philosophy, parodies and screenplays. His work has been translated into 41 languages. Lem is the recipient of many literary awards, most notably the State Prize for Literature in Poland 1976 and the Austrian State Award for European Literature 1985. He was also nominated for the Man Booker International Prize in 2005. His books include His Master’s Voice (1968), The Futurological Congress (1977), and Peace on Earth (1994).
Lem died in March 2006.